Cancer terminology can be complex and challenging to comprehend for medical and paramedic personnel. To help clarify these terms, the following glossary provides simple definitions that can be useful for patients and new medical students.
Metastatic: Cancer terminologies in which the cancer cells spread to other parts of the body said cancer metastases. For example, if colon cancer spreads to the liver it metastasizes to the liver.
Relapse: (when the cancer re-appears after getting treatment)
it is one of the Cancer terminologies in which the disease is getting worse and tumor size increases ( progression) of disease or disease enhancement. This term is mostly in reporting CT scans or MRI results.
Palliative care/treatment: If the disease is not responding to any treatment and the patient is terminally ill then the oncology physician decides to just manage the symptoms ease the patient’s suffering and make the patient comfortable.
Regression: (Decrease in disease intensity or if the tumor size is getting shrinking).
Remissions: If cancer disappears and no more evidence of cancer in the body after treatment.
Benign: If the tumor localizes or is specific to one area.
Malignant: if cancer spreads to other parts of the body or system.
Tumor: Abnormal growth of tissues or accumulation of cancer cells form a hard mass.
Chemotherapy: The medication for the treatment of cancer.
Neoplasm: (new cancer growth )
Oncology: (ONCO =cancer logy= study so, a study of cancer)
Oncologist: (a physician who treats cancer patients
In-situ 🙁 if the tumor localizes to one specific place or area of the body.
Biopsy: (to cut a small piece of suspicious tissue to make an exact diagnosis of cancer cells or other specific cells biopsy)
Stages of cancer:
The intensity of cancer is classified into stages, such as Stage 1 and Stage 2. Stage 3 and Stage 4 are the final stages in oncology.
Mastectomy: The removal of the whole breast. If it is a single side is called unilateral if it is both-sided is called bilateral mastectomy. The purpose of mastectomy is to stop cancer from spreading to other parts.
Sarcoma: Cancer appears in bone tissues. For example Osteosarcoma.
Carcinoma: Cancer appears in the soft tissues of organs. For example gall bladder carcinoma
Myeloma: Cancer of plasma cells.
Lymphoma: Cancer of the lymphatic system ( lymphoma). For example Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Leukemia: Cancer appears in blood cells ( leukemia). However, types of leukemia depend upon the type of cells involved.
Neutropenia: A low level of neutrophils (neutropenia).
Pancytopenia: The decreased number of white blood cells, Red blood cells, and platelets.
Thymoma (a tumor of the thymus gland thymoma.)
Oncogene: The gene which is responsible for the cells to be cancerous is called Oncogene. It is a mutated form of proto-oncogene that is responsible for normal cell division.
Graft versus host disease: This is the reaction between donor cells and recipient cells that occurs after a transplant. e.g. after a solid organ transplant like a kidney or liver transplant or an allogeneic bone marrow transplant.
Defuse large B-cell lymphoma: Defuse large because lymphoma cells seem extremely large under the microscope.
Blast cells. Abnormal /immature cells in the blood (blast cells or blast Crises).
Removal of a lump especially in the breast ( lumpectomy). it is done for biopsy purposes or to avoid the lump being cancerous.
Word in cancer when cancer symptoms spread quickly. For example acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient becomes complicated very soon with multiple signs and symptoms.
When the disease spreads slowly over time for example chronic myeloid leukemia. In this type, treatment starts after months or years. The patient becomes symptomatic very slowly.
Hair fall starts as a side effect of cancer medication during cancer treatment.
Red cell aplasia:
A rare disorder in which bone marrow fails to produce red blood cells is called red cell aplasia.
When the white blood cells drop below their normal range and puts the person at risk of developing infections. Bone marrow aplasia: When the bone is unable to produce enough blood cells is called bone marrow aplasia